Long Live The King, HIS MAJESTY KING BHUMIBOL ADULYADEJ
Dasavidha-rājadhamma; Tenfold Virtue of the Ruler
Dasavidha-rājadhamma or Rajādhamma 10 (“tenfold virtue of the ruler”) is one the Buddhist dharma that rulers of people, organisations, companies, offices, countries or other organs are purposed to hold. It could be found in Sutta, Kuddakanikāya, Jātaka, stating.
Dasavidha-rājadhamma composes of:
Dāna (charity) — being prepared to sacrifice one's own pleasure for the well-being of the public, such as giving away one's belongings or other things to support or assist others, including giving knowledge and serving public interests.
Sīla (morality) — practicing physical and mental morals, and being a good example of others.
Pariccāga (altruism), being generous and avoiding selfishness, practicing altruism.
Ājjava (honesty) — being honest and sincere towards others, performing one's duties with loyalty and sincerity to others.
Maddava (gentleness) — having gentle temperament, avoiding arrogance and never defaming others.
Tapa (self controlling) — destroying passion and performing duties without indolence.
Akkoda (non-anger) — being free from hatred and remaining calm in the midst of confusion.
Avihimsa (non-violence) — exercising non-violence, not being vengeful.
Khanti (forbearance) — practicing patience, and trembling to serve public interests.
Avirodhana (uprightness) — respecting opinions of other persons, avoiding prejudice and promoting public peace and order.
Loi Krathong in Thailand originated in Sukhothai period as Loy Phra Pra Teip or Loy Khom (floating lantern). It is a festival of Thai people. After that, Noppamas- the most favorite concubines Sukhothai king - created krathong, like lotus-shaped, for floating in the river. Instead of floating lantern, it used for worshipping the foot-print of Buddha at Nammathanati River beach in Thakkhinabodh district, India. As we called Nehrabhuddha river.
Loi Krathong at the present
Nowadays, Thai people still keep form suitably; on the full moon of the twelfth, people usually prepare natural materials to make krathong. For example, they use banana trunk and lotus to make beautiful krathong then stick candle, incense stick, and flowers in krathong. They always ask for good luck in the future and forgiveness Pra Mae Khongkha.
At the temples and tourist places, they held contestation of making krathong and Noppamas beauty pageants contest. There are many entertainment shows at night. Moreover, they set cautiously fireworks. The materials, used for making krathong, could be easily decomposed.
“Drought is solved by the Royal Rainmaking Project”
Father of Rainmaking Project Day: November 14
As the majority of the Thai people depend on agriculture, Thailand needs a large amount of water for farming activities. Formerly, Thai farmers had to wait for seasonal rain to grow crops. As a result, the crop production usually suffered from drought as there was not enough rainfall during the long dry season. HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej learned about this problem by travelling to even the remotest corner of the country. Out of the purpose to help his people, the King devoted himself to studying and researching artificial rainmaking techniques and donated his private funds to launch the Royal Rainmaking Project.
On October 23 of every year, the Thai nation celebrate the accomplishments of His Majesty King Chulalongkorn the Great. Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramintharamaha Chulalongkorn Phra Chunla Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua, or Rama V was the fifth monarch of the Royal Chakri Dynasty. His Majesty was known as “Phra Phuttha Chao Luang” and “Phra Piya Maharaj-the Great Beloved King ”. His Majesty King Chulalongkorn was born on September 20, 1853 and passed away on October 23, 1910.
Educational Development Initiative
Education for All. “All of our subjects, will have the same opportunity to study-be they royals, nobles or commoners”.
The first public school was established at Wat Mahanaparam in Bangkok. Department of Education was officially established to be in charged of the national educational administration.
Revision of Thai language textbooks to facilitate teaching and studying, to be more attractive to use. And, the examination templates were introduced to assure standard quality of education.
Higher education, Western style Military School, School for Civil Services, and Teachers’ Training were established.
Established in 1888 a School of Medical Practitioners at Siriraj Hospital, now Mahidol University.
King’s scholarships, granted for Thai students to study abroad, the UK, France, Germany, Russia etc.
National Library was built to serve lifelong education.
October 3rd, 2013 “The Celebration of the 100th Birthday Anniversary of His Holiness Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand 3rd October 2013” “ฉลองพระชันษา 100 ปี สมเด็จพระญาณสังวร สมเด็จพระสังฆราช สกลมหาสังฆปริณายก 3 ตุลาคม 2556”
Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara Somdet Phra Sangharaja Sakalamahasanghaparinayaka (Charoen Suvaḍḍhano) (Thai: สมเด็จพระญาณสังวร สมเด็จพระสังฆราช สกลมหาสังฆปริณายก (เจริญ สุวฑฒฺโน) “His Holiness Phra Yannasangwon, the Supreme Patriarch, the Head of all Members of the Sangha”) (3 October 1913 – 24 October 2013) was the 19th Supreme Patriarch of Thailand. He was appointed to the position in 1989 by King Bhumibol Adulyadej. He turned 100 in October 2013.
Achievements and challenges
During his more than seventy years as a monk and novice, Somdet Nyanasamvara has held a variety of posts in the Thai ecclesiastic hierarchy. In these roles, he has always been concerned with promoting education, both religious and secular. He has assisted in the founding and construction of numerous schools, as well as sponsoring campaigns to build schools, temples, and hospitals in rural communities.
As abbot of Wat Bovoranives, he oversaw the renovation and expansion of this famed century-old monastery. Long interested in the meditation techniques of the Thai forest monks, Somdet Nyanasamvara has helped make his temple residence a center for meditation study and instruction in Bangkok, himself delivering lectures on meditation and Buddhist teachings on two Uposatha days each month.
Somdet Nyanasamvara has also been active in teaching to both non-Thais and the international Thai emigrant community. His recorded sermons and teachings are distributed among Thais living outside Thailand, particularly in areas where there is not access to temples or Theravada monks. Non-Thais have also been encouraged to study Buddhism; Wat Bovoranives is known as one of several monasteries in Thailand where Westerners can not only study, but also ordain either as full bhikkhu, or for a limited term (such as vassa) as a novice (samanera). A number of Somdet Nyanasamvara's books and talks have also been translated into English, and he has been involved in sponsoring the establishment of temples and monasteries outside Thailand.
Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara’s tenure has probably been exposed to more criticism and controversy than that of any preceding Thai Sangharaja. A number of Thai monks – among them some prominent and popular religious leaders – became embroiled in scandal, with allegations ranging from sexual misconduct to corrupt fundraising schemes and involvement in organized crime. Changes in Thai society wrought by modernization began to impose on the traditional and conservative Sangha as well – including calls for greater rolls for laypeople and younger monks in religious affairs, and organized efforts both in Thailand and abroad to re-create the lost Theravada bhikkhuni (nun-priest) ordination.
Because of the convoluted governing structure of the Thai Sangha (which includes both ecclesiastic and civil officials) and the Patriarch’s health problems, it is difficult to determine what, if any, role that Somdet Nyanasamvara has played in formulating a response to these challenges. Certainly, the course held by the Council of Elders has not strayed during his tenure; they continue to defrock those monks found guilty of the most flagrant offenses, and to strongly oppose any change in the official status of women in the Sangha. The Council (and, by implication, Somdet Nyanasamvara) have received criticism for not taking a more proactive role in reforming disciplinary standards and eliminating corruption.
Like its predecessors, the Council of Elders under Somdet Nyanasamvara has been very conservative and reluctant to act without great deliberation. There are some indications that this may be the best course for maintaining the confidence of the lay public; in the United States, for instance, some temples that have attempted to change the roles of Theravada monks have been met by a strong backlash from their lay communities. However, the troubles of the Catholic Church in the United States have offered a model of the possible consequences of failing to deal openly and swiftly with corruption and misconduct: an eventual meltdown, made worse by stop-gap attempts to preserve the people’s faith in religious institutions, rather than dealing openly with problems.
Furthermore, educated Buddhist women and their supporters – Thais, Westerners, and others – continue to call for an expanded role for female Buddhists, with many calling for a rebirth of the Theravada bhikkhuni lineage. They are joined in this call not only by some laymen, but by an increasing number of progressive monks. Some supporters of the recreation of the bhikkhuni lineage have already begun to take action, ordaining Buddhist nuns through recourse to the existing Chinese bhikkhuni lineage. The Council and secular authorities have condemned these actions, going so far as to arrest for impersonation of a member of the clergy at least one Thai woman who underwent the new bhikkhuni ordination (ordained bhikkhu have a different civil status in Thai society than non-ordained female followers, such as the mae jis).
The actions of Somdet Nyanasamvara and his Council (or, more likely, his successor and his Council) during the next few years may have a lasting impact on the Thai Sangha – either by beginning to resolve the troublesome questions that have arisen during the last half of the 20th century, or by deepening what could prove to be a pending crisis for Theravada as a whole.
Supreme Patriarch dies at 100 King, nation mourn passing of Buddhist spiritual leader
The nation and the entire Buddhist community are mourning the loss of His Holiness the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand, Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara Suvaddhana Mahathera, who died at Chulalongkorn Hospital Thursday evening.
The 9th statement released Thursday by the hospital said the overall condition of His Holiness had worsened and he died at 7.30pm. He died of sepsis (a blood infection), according to the statement.
In the eighth hospital statement released earlier Thursday, the general condition of the Supreme Patriarch had deteriorated with a drop in his blood pressure. A team of physicians had been monitoring his condition closely. The Supreme Patriarch received surgery to treat an intestinal infection on Oct 14. A group of monks and Buddhists who were following the Supreme Patriarch's condition at Chulalongkorn Hospital joined in prayers for his health to improve. The Supreme Patriarch had been ill since Feb 20, 2002 when he was admitted to Chulalongkorn Hospital.
Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara was appointed by His Majesty the King as the head of the Buddhist clergy in 1989, the 19th Supreme Patriarch since the beginning of the Chakri Dynasty. At 24 years in the role, His Holiness was the longest-reigning Supreme Patriarch.
The World Buddhist Supreme Conference last year bestowed the title of the Supreme Holiness of World Buddhism on the Supreme Patriarch during a Buddhist summit in Japan, attended by Sangha leaders from 32 nations worldwide.
Royal Birthday Anniversary of Their Majesties King Chulalongkorn and King Ananda Mahidol “๒๐ กันยายน
วันคล้ายวันพระราชสมภพ พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาจุฬาลงกรณ์ฯ พระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว รัชกาลที่๕
และ พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรเมนทรมหาอานันทมหิดล พระอัฐมรามาธิบดินทร รัชกาลที่๘ แห่งราชวงศ์จักรี”
Chulalongkorn the Great, King Rama V
King Chulalongkorn, also called Phrachunlachomklao, posthumous name Rama V (born Sept. 20, 1853, Bangkok, Siam [now Thailand]—died Oct. 23, 1910, Bangkok), king of Siam who avoided colonial domination and embarked upon far-reaching reforms.
King Chulalongkorn was the ninth son of King Mongkut, but since he was the first to be born to a royal queen, he was recognized as heir to the throne. He was only 15 years old when his father died in October 1868, and he succeeded to the throne under the regency of Somdet Chao Phraya Si Suriyawong. Over the next five years he was prepared to assume his duties by observing court business and by travels to British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies in 1871 and to Malaya, Burma (Myanmar), and India in 1871–72.
Following his coronation in November 1873, the young king enacted a series of ambitious reforms, beginning with the abolition of slavery, the improvement of judicial and financial institutions, and the institution of appointed legislative councils. His commitment to reforms patterned on Western models, which he considered vital to Siam’s survival, antagonized conservative factions at court and precipitated a political crisis early in 1875. Rebuffed by the older generation, the king instituted no further reforms for the next decade, but he slowly built up a corps of able, trusted administrators with whom he began from the mid-1880s to overhaul Siam’s antiquated administration. These steps culminated in 1892 with the creation of 12 ministries functionally organized on Western lines, responsible for such functions as provincial administration, defense, foreign affairs, justice, education, and public works. He thereby drastically curbed arbitrary administration, ended the autonomy of outlying provinces, instituted the rule of impersonal law, and laid the foundations of modern Thai citizenship through compulsory primary education and universal military conscription.
Internal reforms were undertaken both because the liberal king believed them to be right and because he recognized that he had to show the colonial powers that Siam was “civilized” in order to avoid the fate of neighbouring countries that fell under colonial rule. Even so, old Siam did not survive intact. The French provoked war with Siam in 1892, and by treaties with France up to 1907 Siam had to give up its rights in Laos and western Cambodia. In 1909 Siam ceded to Great Britain the four Malay states of Kelantan, Trengganu, Kedah, and Perlis, and this brought some moderation of the system of extraterritoriality—which ended only two decades later. In relations with the West, Chulalongkorn even-handedly balanced the colonial powers against one another and consistently sought to have Siam treated as an equal among nations. During tours of Europe in 1897 and 1907, he was received as an equal by Western monarchs. When King Chulalongkorn died in 1910, following the longest reign in Thai history, he bequeathed to his son King Vajiravudh a modern, independent kingdom.
King Ananda Mahidol, also called Rama VIII (born Sept. 20, 1925, Heidelberg, Ger.—died June 9, 1946, Bangkok), eighth king of the Chakkri dynasty of Siam, whose death was one of the most traumatic events in the history of modern Thailand. King Ananda Mahidol was only 10 years old and a schoolboy in Switzerland when he succeeded his uncle, King Prajadhipok, in 1935. World War II prevented his return to Thailand to assume his constitutional duties until 1946. Ananda Mahidol. (2013). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/22675/Ananda-Mahidol
(Ref. Photo blog.eduzones.com/supersine/98686)
On August 12, Thais will celebrate the 81st Birthday of Her Majesty Queen Sirikit, while at the same time celebrating Mother’s Day throughout the kingdom.
In Thailand,12th August is celebrated as the birthday of Her Majesty Queen Sirikit. As the Queen is also regarded as mother to all Thai people, this day is also celebrated as Mother’s Day. On this day, white jasmine flowers are a common sight in Thailand as they are the symbol of maternal love. The white color of the flower symbolizes purity of mother’s true love, which will never change. HM Queen Sirikit has long been an ardent ambassador for Thai silk, wearing the fabric and clothes made from the different styles of Thai silk, locally and abroad.In 1960, Her Majesty the Queen decided that Thai women needed a distinctive national dress that would embody the traditions and craftsmanship of the kingdom internationally, with handwoven Thai silk, as well as plain, brocade or patterned, and tie-dyed silk, chosen as the material.
Projects to raise the living standards
of the people
Humanitarian and Social Welfare
Her Majesty’s Work in Rural Areas
Royal Development Projects
Queen Sirikit Museum of Textiles
The Support Foundation
Her Majesty’s concern for Education
and Health Care
International Recognition and Awards
TIRELESS DEVOTION Her Majesty has always been very active in many of her own projects, such as the Sai Jai Thai Foundation. Her Majesty’s care and compassion shines through as she regularly visits soldiers, policemen and civil servants who are injured in their work. The foundation, which is under her royal patronage, also looks after the families of those who have died in active service. Her Majesty has long been performing a variety of charitable activities and often provides assistance to needy families, especially farmers and unemployed villagers. Her Majesty established the Foundation for the Promotion of Supplementary Occupations and Related Techniques (SUPPORT) to help rural people to use their artistic skills and natural resources to produce unique local handicrafts.
Her Majesty has always been very devoted to Her children. She attended the Kindergarten class at Rajini School. But subsequently went to St. Francis Xavier School at Samsen District in Bangkok in order to be nearer to home. Her father later on became Thai Minister to France, to Denmark and ultimately Ambassador to the Court of St. James. Her Majesty accompanied him and continued her general education in the three countries and lastly in Switzerland.
It was while her father was stationed in Paris that she first met His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej, who was then studying in Switzerland but went now and then to Paris. The chance meeting in Paris ripened into friendship and understanding. When His Majesty met with a serious motor car accident in Geneva, Switzerland and had to stay in a hospital at Lausanne, Her Majesty was a frequent visitor. When His Majesty was well again and left the hospital, He was graciously pleased to arrange for Her Majesty to continue her studies at “Riante Rive”, a boarding school in Lausanne.
On July 19, 1949 Their Majesties were quietly engaged in Lausanne. On March 24, 1950, Their Majesties landed in Bangkok by ship after a long absence. On April 28 of the same year, the Royal Wedding took place at Padumawan Palace before the Queen Grandmother. As a democratic King and Queen, Their Majesties signed their names in the Registry Book of Marriages. Prince Chandaburi Suranath also appended his signature in the book to show that he permitted his daughter, who was then under age and required her father’s consent to the marriage, to go through the ceremony of marriage. His Majesty then crowned HM the Queen in conformity with Thai tradition.
Their Majesties have four children, namely: Princess Ubolratana, born on April 5, 1951, His Royal Highness Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn, born on July 28, 1952, Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, born on April 2, 1955 and Her Royal Highness Princess Chulabhorn, born on July 4, 1957.
Their Majesties took great care in the education of their children in order to prepare them to meet the various duties which they will have to undertake in later life. A choice had to be made between private tutoring and sending the children to an ordinary school. Private tutoring is a good medium for imparting knowledge, but it lacks human contact with children of similar ages. Attendance at an ordinary school also has its drawbacks. From experience, it would appear that teachers, pupils and even parents are subjected to biases either favorable or unfavorable. In order to avoid these inconveniences, His Majesty, with the entire concurrence of Her Majesty, set up a school in the compound of Chitralada Villa. Better control and supervision could thus be assured. The school was established and registered in accordance with the law in November 1958. There were about 78 children in the school. The classmates of the Royal children were sons and daughters of ordinary people of various vocations. In the year 2007 the number of Chitralada School children increased to 1,822 with 285 regular teachers and several part-time teachers.
Her Majesty has always been very devoted to Her children. During their younger days, she used to spend as much time with them whenever Her duties would allow, and kept close supervision on all their activities. When Her Majesty was in the United States of America during the State Visit with His Majesty in 1960, a TV representative asked Her what Her favorite hobby was. The reply was: “Looking after my children!”
Jasmine flower is the symbol of The Mother's day
White jasmine flowers are a common sight in Thailand as they are the symbol of maternal love. The white color of the flower symbolizes purity of mother's true love, which will never change.
Asalahabucha Day July 22, 2013
The second full moon day of the eighth Thai lunar month, is the Asalaha Bucha Day, which is another most sacred Buddhist holy days. Buddhists celebrate this day because of its important historic events in the past, or actually of over 2,500 years ago. Asalaha Bucha means paying hommage to the Buddha. This particular day commemorates the first Dharma discourse given by the Buddha to his first Buddhist monk, and thus constituting the birth of the Triple Gem of Buddhism; namely, the Buddha, the Dharma or his teachings, and the Sangha or his disciples.
Khaopansa Day July 23, 2013
On the day right after Asalaha Bucha Day another important religious event, Khao Pansa or Vassa or the Rains Retreat, is celebrated. The event starts from the first day of the waning moon of the eighth Thai lunar month (normally the first day after the full moon day in July), and lasts for 3 months. During this rainy time monks will remain in the temples and devote themselves to religious studies, serious contemplation and mediation, and to observe their religious obligations. This year, Khao Pansa begins on July 23th, and ends on October 19th (or called Okpansa).
CGI Exhibition on July 4, 2013 in Honor of Her Royal Highness Princess Chulabhorn Birthday Celebration
featuring a video presentation “Our Beloved Princess-Scientist-Thailand’s Pride Ever”
“Royal Chakri Dynasty: Educational Development Initiative” a video presentation based on the book “แนวพระราชดำริด้านการศึกษา ๙ รัชกาล”
“CGI Building in Pictures: from 2005 to Today” an archival gallery of CGI Building Construction.
Bhumibol was crowned King of Thailand on 5 May 1950 at the Royal Palace.
Coronation and titles The 63rd anniversary of the Coronation of His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej, the world’s longest reigning monarch.
Bhumibol was crowned King of Thailand on 5 May 1950 at the Royal Palace in Bangkok where he pledged that he would “reign with righteousness for the benefit and happiness of the Siamese people” (“เราจะครองแผ่นดินโดยธรรม เพื่อประโยชน์สุขแห่งมหาชนชาวสยาม”). Notable elements associated with the coronation included the Bahadrabith Throne beneath the Great White Umbrella of State; and he was presented with the royal regalia and utensils.
In 1950 on Coronation Day, Bhumibol's consort was made Queen (Somdej Phra Boromarajini). The date of his coronation is celebrated each 5 May in Thailand as Coronation Day, a public holiday. On 9 June 2006, Bhumibol celebrated his 60th anniversary as the King of Thailand, becoming the longest reigning monarch in Thai history.
Following the death of his grandmother Queen Savang Vadhana, Bhumibol entered a 15-day monkhood (22 October 1956 – 5 November 1956) at Wat Bowonniwet, as is customary for Buddhist males on the death of elder relatives. During this time, Sirikit was appointed his regent. She was later appointed Queen Regent (Somdej Phra Boromarajininat) in recognition of this.
Although Bhumibol is sometimes referred to as King Rama IX in English, Thais refer to him as Nai Luang or Phra Chao Yu Hua (ในหลวง or พระเจ้าอยู่หัว: both mean “the King” or “Lord Upon our Heads”). He is also called Chao Chiwit (“Lord of Life”). Formally, he would be referred to as Phrabat Somdet Phra Chao Yu Hua (พระบาทสมเด็จพระเจ้าอยู่หัว) or, in legal documents, Phrabat Somdet Phra Paraminthara Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาภูมิพลอดุลยเดช), and in English as His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej. He signs his name as ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช ป.ร. (Bhumibol Adulyadej Por Ror; this is the Thai equivalent of Bhumibol Adulyadej R[ex]).
- (Ref. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Border: thisthai.com)
Two sacred oxen, 'Fah' and 'Sai', are offered food during the Royal Ploughing Ceremony. They ate maize and grass which soothsayers predict will bring a good harvest, abundant food production and plentiful water.
ROYAL PLOUGHING CEREMONY 2013 : Seers predict good harvest Traditional soothsayers are predicting good harvests and plentiful water for the year ahead after the Royal Ploughing Ceremony at Sanam Luang yesterday. People scramble over barriers and rush to pick up sacred rice seeds strewn on the ground. The seeds are believed to bring good luck.
His Royal Highness Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn presided over the ceremony, accompanied by Royal Consort HRH Princess Srirasm. Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra, government officials and a large crowd of onlookers, including many farmers, also attended. Permanent secretary for agriculture and cooperatives Chawalit Chukhachorn performed as Phraya Raek Na, or Lord of the Ploughing Ceremony. He led two sacred oxen, “Fah” and “Sai”, to plough a furrow in the ceremonial ground, located not far from the Grand Palace. Four women followed behind the oxen carrying gold and silver baskets filled with rice seeds, scattering the grain into the newly ploughed furrow. Walking alongside the plough were official Brahmans from the Royal Court who chanted and blew conch shells. The sacred oxen were offered seven bowls containing grass, paddy, maize, sesame seeds, soy beans, water and liquor. The oxen chose to eat maize and grass. The Brahman soothsayers interpreted this to signify a good harvest, abundant food and plentiful water for the year ahead. The Brahman priests offered the Phraya Raek Na three pieces of folded cloth, each of a different length. The one he selected proved to be four kuebs (about one metre) long. Based on his selection, water will be plentiful, while crops on higher ground will yield good harvests and those in low-lying areas will be slightly damaged.
(Resource bangkokpost.com http://www.bangkokpost.com/news/local/349819/seers-predict-good-harvest, PHOTOS BY CHANAT KATANYU)
The Royal Ploughing Ceremony was probably in the old times, the rite designed to remind the farmers and to give an auspicious beginning to the new planting season especially the rice farming that is the major source of food. The leader or the rulers of the country preside over the ceremony when the planting seasons begin. to remind the farmers and to give an auspicious beginning to the new planting season especially the rice farming that is the major source of food. The leader or the rulers of the country preside over the ceremony when the planting seasons begin.
After some times passed, the Brahmanic rite called Ploughing ceremony was then introduced. Its purpose is to encourage the power and happiness. Bhraman were instructors for the ceremony. The king or the leader of the country may designate this duty to a respective high-ranking officer to perform the ceremony as Phraya Raekna, Lord of the Ploughing Ceremony. The roles of the queen or wives who had to help ploughing are designated to four celestial maidens, called the queen of sowing ceremony, assisting Phraya Raekna by carrying seeds containers and distribute the seeds after Phraya Raekna had ploughed the ground. The Royal Ploughing Ceremony has been annually performed for thousands of years in several countries such as China and India.
In Thailand, this ceremony has been performed since Sukhothai was the capital. It had been continued in Ayuthaya and Ratanakhosindhu (Bangkok) period. The Royal Ploughing ceremony performed during the reign of King Rama I, II, and III was purely the Bhramanic rite as it had been in Ayutthaya period i.e. there was no Buddhist monk participated in the ceremony.
Historical Background Visakha Puja Day marks the three important incidents in the life of Lord Buddha on the same day - the full moon of the sixth lunar month. The three significant separate event are :
1. The Buddha's Birth - the Buddha was born into a royal warrior clan in the Lumbini Garden (in an area of Northern India known today as Nepal) In the morning of the Vesak full moon day, 80 years before the Buddhist Era. He was named Siddhattha five days after his birth.
2. The Enlightenment of Buddha - While sitting under the Bodhi tree, he found his answer and attained the enlightenment at the age of 35 years at Uruvelasenanigama subdistrict, Magadha state, (nowadays, located in the area of Buddha Kaya, Bihar State, India), on Wednesday, the Vesak full moon day, the zodiac of the cock, forty five years before the Buddhist Era.
3. The Nibbana - The Buddha passed away on Tuesday, the Vesak full moon day in the zodiac year of the small snake under the two Sala trees in the Sala Grove of the Mallas in Kusinara, the capital of the Malla state, (nowadays located in Kusinagara of Uttrarapradesa, India) at the age of eighty years (around 2547 years ago)
Visakha Puja (Vesak) means the worship of the Buddha on the full moon day of the sixth lunar month. It usually falls in May. In the case of a year with an extra eighth lunar month–Adhikamasa (there are 13 full moons in that year)– the Visakha Puja Day falls on the full moon day of the seventh lunar month.
Significance Visakha Puja Day is recognized as most important memorial day in Buddhism for the Lord Buddha who wandered from place to place teaching his discoveries to people who are accessible to the instruction, helping large a number of people achieving various levels of spiritual attainment. He sent his followers to spread Buddhism in capitals, cities and upcountry, until Buddhism was firmly established and widely spread. Visakha Puja day is also recognized by the UNESCO in 1999 as “World Heritage Day”. Thailand where is the permanent location of the World Fellowship of Buddhists, is chosen to host celebrating event for the day.
An International Day of the United Nations On December 13, 1999, the United Nations as the World Organization performing various activities accepted by the world wide population has unanimously resolved to declare the Visakha Puja Day (Vesak Day) as an International Day on December 15, 1999. This brings a lot of joy to the worldwide Buddhists.
Custom of Visakha Puja Day Rite Every year when this important day comes around again, all Buddhists throughout the world gather together to perform the worship to recollect the wisdom, purity and compassion of the Buddha. Activities generally to be observed on the Visakha Puja Day are :
TUM BOON Going to temples for special observances, making merit, listening to Dharma preaching, giving some donations and join in the other Buddhist activities.
RUB SIL Keeping the Five Precepts, including abstinence from alcoholic drinks and all kinds of immoral acts.
TUK BARD Offering food to the monks and novices (in the alm bowl).
Practice of renuciation: Observe the Eight Precepts, practice of meditation and mental displine, stay in the temple, wearing white robes, for a number of days.
VIEN TIEN Attending the Candle Light Procession around the Uposatha Hall, in the evening of the Vesak full moon day.
Prior to the establishment of Chakri Dynasty (the current royal lineage), the Kingdom of Siam (former name of Thailand) was in turmoil. Aggressive Burmese troops occupied the Northern Kingdom of Lan Na and were proceeding down south to the Siamese Royal Capital of Ayutthaya. A young man of noble Ayutthaya descent named Thong Duang (born in 1737) commanded the bitter fights in the Northern war. Despite the efforts to fight back, they were gradually forced to fall back until the Burmese had gotten a grip on the Royal Capital. Ayutthaya fell on April 8th, 1767 and the Siamese people fled to the city of Thonburi located further downriver on the mighty Chaophraya River. The beautiful city of Ayutthaya was destroyed by the Burmese, temples plundered, gold and jewelry looted, monks and women were cruelly effected. But the Burmese had suffered heavily in the taking of Ayutthaya and knew the Siamese would return to take up battle. Knowing they could not hold Ayutthaya, the Burmese retreated after only one week. War campaigns continued over the years, ebbing and flowing, until the Siamese armies united during 1779 in Thonburi. Thong Duang now known as Chakri became the military commander. He realized that the Royal Court of King Taaksin was in such disharmony because the King, weary of wars, had resorted to religion rather than addressed the needs of his subjects. The lack of leadership caused rebellions to break out. Rebels marched on Thonburi, calling for the overthrow and replacement of King Taaksin with their beloved “Chakri.” As a result Chaophraya Chakri took the title “King Ramathibodi” and reigned as King Rama I from April 6 1782 until 1809.
As an experienced military campaigner, King Rama I of the Chakri Dynasty knew that the city of Thonburi was vulnerable to possible Burmese attack from the west. Accordingly, he commanded that a new Capital be established across Chaophraya River. And so Krung - Thep (Bangkok) was created.
Chakri Day commemorates the founding of the Chakri Dynasty in 1782 by King Rama I. In the new capital city of Bangkok, King Rama I built the Grand Palace that now houses the Emerald Buddha. In addition, he helped release Thailand from the Burmese control, after Ayutthaya succumbed 14 years earlier.
In commemorating “Chakri Day,” the national flag is proudly displayed by the people of Thailand and both government officials and members of the community participate in traditional ceremonies, making offerings of flowers and garlands at the many statues of Kings in the House of Chakri.
King Bhumibol Adulyadej is the current King, known as King Rama IX or the ninth King of the Chakri dynasty. A Royal ceremony is performed by the King to pay respects to King Rama I the Great, the founder of the Chakri Dynasty.
Songkran is the occasion for family re-unions, temple visits and annual house cleaning. Many Thais observe the holidays by spending time with families and friends. Traditionally, Thais perform the Rod Nam Dum Hua ritual on the first day of Songkran, which is officially the National Elderly Day. During the ritual, young people would pour fragrant water into the elders’ palms as a gesture of humility and to ask for their blessings.
The second day of Songkran is officially the National Family Day. Families would wake up early and give alms to the monks, then ideally the rest of the day would be spent sharing quality family time together. An important religious ritual on Songkran is ‘Bathing the Buddha image’, in which devout Buddhists pour fragrant water over Buddha statues both at the temple and at home. More religious Thais would engage themselves in Buddhist ceremonies and merit-making activities throughout the holidays.
Water as Symbolism Contradictory to what you may have witnessed throughout Songkran, fun-loving Thais don’t just throw water at each other for no good reason (besides having a kick out of seeing other people soaking wet). The real meaning behind the splashes is to symbolically wash off all misfortunes in the past year, thus welcoming the new year with a fresh new start.
Traditionally, Thais would politely pour a bowl of water on members of the family, their close friends and neighbours. As Songkran has taken a more festive note, a bowl becomes a bucket, garden hose and water guns, and the spirit of holiday merriment is shared amongst all town residents and tourists alike.
Making Merit Making merit is an essential part of Songkran, and visiting nine sacred temples during Songkran considered one of the ultimate accumulators. Songkran Do’s and Don’ts
✔ Do give alms and make merit (or just witness the rituals if you are not a Buddhist)
✔ Do use waterproof bags to protect your valuables
✔ Do watch your belongings
✔ Do use public transportation if you are heading to one of Songkran ‘hotspots’, as traffic will be paralysed
✔ Do try wishing the locals a happy new year in Thai – “Sawasdee Pee Mai!”
✔ Do smile and have fun
✘ Do not douse monks, babies or the elderly ✘ Do not drive when you have been drinking ✘ Do not throw water with ice or dirty water ✘ Do not throw water at motorcyclists, to prevent road accidents
Royal statue of King Naresuan at Naresuan university,
Phitsanulok province, Thailand
King Naresuan entered Hanthawadi (now Pegu),
mural painting by Phraya Anusatchitrakon,
Wat Suwandararam, Ayutthaya.
King Naresuan The Great, Somdet Phra Naresuan Maharat (Thai: สมเด็จพระนเรศวรมหาราช) was passed away on April 25 ,1605 (1555 – 1605).
Somdet Phra Naresuan Maharat or Somdet Phra Sanphet II (1555 – 1605) was the King of the Ayutthaya kingdom from 1590 until his death in 1605. Naresuan was one of Siam's most revered monarchs as he was known for his campaigns to free Siam from Burmese rule. During his reign numerous wars were fought against Burma, and Siam reached its greatest territorial extent and influence.
Prince Naret was born in the city of Phitsanulok. He was the son of King Maha Thammarachathirat of Phitsanulok and his queen Wisutkasat. His mother was a daughter of Maha Chakkrapat and Queen Sri Suriyothai. His father was a Sukhothai noble, who had defeated Vorawongsathirat in 1548 and put Maha Chakkrapat on the throne. He was therefore an influential figure.
Prince Naret was also known as the Black Prince (Thai: พระองค์ดำ), and his younger brother Ekathotsarot was known as the White Prince. It is a common belief that these nicknames was given later due to a good cop/bad cop image of Naresuan and his brother. That is to say, while King “Naresuan the Black” ruled with an iron-fist, his brother “Ekathotsarot the White” intercedes on the behalf of the people. General opinion, however, attributes the virtues of Ekathotsarot to Naresuan. Supporter of this theory claims that as a military king, Naresuan needs to be seen as a strict and severe leader, and therefore commissioned his brother to act out the role play. His elder sister Suphankanlaya was known as the Golden Princess, presumably due to her adherence to chivalric honor.
In 1563 Bayinnaung, the King of Pegu, led massive Burmese armies in an invasion of Siam. King Bayinnuang laid siege to Phitsanulok. Maha Thammarachathirat came to believe that the city would not be able to withstand a long siege, so he surrendered to the Burmese. King Bayinnuang took Phitsanulok and made the Kingdom of Sukhothai a Burmese tributary. MahaThammarachathirat had to send his sons – the Black and the White Prince – to Pegu as captives to ensure the king's fidelity. (Resource & Photo From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naresuan)
Some historians raised doubts about just how fluent the king's Burmese had actually been. Others suggested he had picked up a taste for betel nut and tea in Ayutthaya, which, historian Thamrongsak Petchlert-anan was swift to point out, were popular in the Thai capital during the king's reign from 1590 to 1605. Naresuan learned military strategy and political science during his nine years as a captive at the Burmese court at Pegu, according to “A History of Burma” by Maung Htin Aung. According to Thai and Burmese accounts, Prince Naresuan was sent to live in Pegu in order to ensure his father Somdet Phra Maha Thammarachathirat remained loyal to Burmese King Bayinnaung. Prince Naresuan returned to Siam when he was 16 and immediately committed his life to non-stop warfare. Nineteen years later he became king and embarked on continuous military campaigns, dying at the age of 50. A study of King Naresuan's battles indicates that the warrior king looked at politics far beyond the Chao Phya River basin, Sunait said. “He didn't just defend Ayutthaya: he actively attacked Burma. The king carried war into the Irrawaddy basin in order to maintain the stability of Ayutthaya,” the historian said. King Naresuan launched an attack on Ava to prevent Burma's new king from becoming stronger than the preceding one, he added. King Naresuan may have believed that a stable Ayutthaya required a weakened Ava and launched his campaign to prevent his western rival from extending its power over the Irrawaddy and Chao Phya basins, Sunait said. Historians agree that King Naresuan died before he arrived at the Burmese capital, but they disagree on the location.
The “father of Thai history” has King Naresuan dying in Siam, in tambon Thung Kaew, then known as Muang Hang. This is the established view set out in “The Biography of King Naresuan the Great” written in 1950 by Prince Damrongrajanubhap. According to Prince Damrong, King Naresuan and his younger brother Somdet Phra Ekathotsarot led their troops from Ayutthaya to Muang Chiang Mai, where they collected another 200,000 soldiers. The king then divided the troops into two armies, assigning his brother to lead one to Muang Fang while he headed to Muang Hang. But while Thai historians say King Naresuan died at Muang Hang, the Shan people beg to differ. According to their popular history, King Naresuan died at the Shan town of Mongton while on his way to help Chao Kham Kai Noi, the Prince of Hsenwi, resist the Burmese. Naresuan is still remembered by the Shan as the Thai king who helped them win independence for the Shan State in 1600 with his ally the Prince of Hsenwi. In the Shan version, their independence hinges on a deep friendship. The two Siamese princes and the Prince of Hsenwi forged a close bond while they were fellow hostages at the Burmese court, and King Naresuan died while rushing to the aid of a friend of his youth, they say. The Thai chronicles are less appealing. They have the warrior king dying of a sudden illness, a toxic disease characterised by skin pustules. According to the Shan, however, the Thai king and the Shan prince died side by side on the battlefield. Many Shan believe King Naresuan was cremated and his ashes interred in a stupa in Mongton, in the southern part of the Shan State. Shan soldiers still revere the Thai king as a hero who helped liberate them. Many wear King Naresuan amulets to protect them in their ongoing war with the Burmese junta. Recent Thai scholarship, however, identifies the town where King Naresuan died as Wieng Haeng in Chiang Mai. Villagers there even claim the “Royal Ceremonial Felt Hat” believed to have been worn by the king into battle was found in Wieng Haeng and has been kept there as historical evidence. (Resource Warrior king remains a very modern mystery http://www.nationmultimedia.com/2006/04/30/headlines/headlines_30002880.php)
CGI published papers in international journals and cited in ISI Web of Science, and Scopus databases.
Since 2007, CGI publications have been accepted to publish in international journals with Impact Factor higher than 2.
The journals covered the Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Phytochemistry, Tetrahedron, European Journal of Organic Chemistry,
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy,
Chemistry- A European Journal, Infection and Immunity, Proteomics, Food Chemistry.
CGI research programs were conducted in cooperation with CRI - Chulabhorn Research Institute.
Publications were traced, and summarized as follows:
- 2011 result searched in 2012 showed 17 articles in journals with Impact Factor higher than 2 and reference cited 9 times.
- 2010 result searched in 2011 showed 28 articles in journals with Impact Factor higher than 2 and reference cited 54 times.
- 2009 result searched in 2010 showed 21 articles in journals with Impact Factor higher than 2 and reference cited 30 times.
- 2008 result searched in 2009 showed 15 articles in journals with Impact Factor higher than 2 and reference cited 40 times.
- 2007 result searched in 2008 showed 14 articles in journals with Impact Factor higher than 3 and reference cited 41 times.
Impact Factor The impact factor (IF) of an academic journal is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to recent articles published in the journal. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field, with journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those with lower ones. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in the Journal Citation Reports.
(Ref. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impact_factor)
Journal Impact Factors Journal Impact Factor is from Journal Citation Report (JCR), a product of Thomson ISI (Institute for Scientific Information). JCR provides quantitative tools for evaluating journals. The impact factor is one of these; it is a measure of the frequency with which the “average article” in a journal has been cited in a given period of time.
The impact factor for a journal is calculated based on a three-year period, and can be considered to be the average number of times published papers are cited up to two years after publication. For example, the impact factor 2013 for a journal would be calculated as follows: A = the number of times articles published in 2011-2012 were cited in indexed journals during 2013
B = the number of articles, reviews, proceedings or notes published in 2011-2012
impact factor 2013 = A/B
(note that the impact factor 2012 will be ublished in 2013, because it could not be calculated until all of the 2012 publications had been received. Impact factor 2013 will be published in 2014) Impact factor of Nature, Science and Cell journals can be found on their journal websites.
- OPAC searching for library books
CGI Learning Center serves as the information and knowledge assets of the CGI&CRI which forms the core element in utilizing science and technology to improve “Quality of Life”. To search CGI Learning Center resources, just type in a few words into the Quick search box and click at OK or go to http://www.cgi.ac.th/library/services/book_catalog is also available for CRI library too. - Single search service
EDS provides a fast, streamlined search through a single search box, but within the context of a greater experience that pulls together intuitive features and functionality, high-end indexing via Platform Blending, and instant access to critical full text, leveraged from the leading EBSCOhost research platform and databases, as well as from key information providers. And as EDS continues to evolve, the end goal remains the same—helping users to find and access the highest-quality content for the best-possible research experience. แจ้งเปิดให้เข้าทดลองใข้งานระบบสืบค้น EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS)
ขอเชิญทุกท่านทดลองใช้ระบบสืบค้น EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS) ซึ่งเป็นนวัตกรรมที่ใช้ในการจัดการและการสืบค้นฐานข้อมูล อาทิเช่น ฐานข้อมูล Proquest Dissertation ฐานข้อมูล ISI Web of Science ทั้งนี้ยังรวมถึงฐานข้อมูล EBSCO eBooks (NetLibrary) ผ่านช่องทางการสืบค้นเดียว (Single Search) โดยท่านสามารถเข้าใช้งานผ่านทาง URL : http://search.ebscohost.com และเลือก Ebsco Discovery Service ได้ตั้งแต่บัดนี้จนถึงวันที่ 30 มิถุนายน 2556 หรือเข้าทดลองใข้งานระบบสืบค้นผ่านช่องทางการสืบค้นเดียว (Single Search) ที่ http://www.cgi.ac.th/library and http://www.cgi.ac.th/library/services/ref_db
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, or ASEAN was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by the Founding Fathers of ASEAN, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Brunei Darussalam then joined on 7 January 1984, Viet Nam on 28 July 1995, Lao PDR and Myanmar on 23 July 1997, and Cambodia on 30 April 1999, making up what is today the ten Member States of ASEAN. The ASEAN Community is comprised of three pillars, the ASEAN Political-Security Community, ASEAN Economic Community and ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community. Ref: http://www.asean.org/asean/about-asean/overview, Britannica Encyclopedia Online, Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia.
ASEAN Member States
1. Brunei Darussalam
4. Lao PDR
10. Viet Nam (Credit Photo Hello Asean)
ASEAN Political - Security Community To build on what has been constructed over the years in the field of political and security cooperation, the ASEAN Leaders have agreed to establish the ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC). The APSC shall aim to ensure that countries in the region live at peace with one another and with the world in a just, democratic and harmonious environment.
The members of the Community pledge to rely exclusively on peaceful processes in the settlement of intra-regional differences and regard their security as fundamentally linked to one another and bound by geographic location, common vision and objectives. It has the following components: political development; shaping and sharing of norms; conflict prevention; conflict resolution; post-conflict peace building; and implementing mechanisms.
The APSC Blueprint envisages ASEAN to be a rules-based Community of shared values and norms; a cohesive, peaceful, stable and resilient region with shared responsibility for comprehensive security; as well as a dynamic and outward-looking region in an increasingly integrated and interdependent world. The APSC Blueprint is guided by the ASEAN Charter and the principles and purposes contained therein. It provides a roadmap and timetable to establish the APSC by 2015. It also leaves room for flexibility to continue programmes/activities beyond 2015 in order to retain its significance and have an enduring quality. Ref. http://www.asean.org/communities/asean-political-security-community
ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community - ASEAN Socio - Cultural
The ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community aims to contribute to realising an ASEAN Community that is people-oriented and socially responsible with a view to achieving enduring solidarity and unity among the peoples and Member States of ASEAN. It seeks to forge a common identity and build a caring and sharing society which is inclusive and where the well-being, livelihood, and welfare of the peoples are enhanced.
ASCC is focused on nurturing the human, cultural and natural resources for sustained development in a harmonious and people-oriented ASEAN. - ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community (ASCC) Blueprint
The ASCC Blueprint represents the human dimension of ASEAN cooperation and upholds ASEAN commitment to address the region's aspiration to lift the quality of life of its peoples. The goals of the ASCC are envisaged to be achieved by implementing concrete and productive actions that are people-centred and socially responsible. This set of cooperative activities has been developed based on the assumption that the three pillars of the ASEAN Community are interdependent and interrelated and that linkages are imperative to ensure complementarity and unity of purpose. The ASCC Blueprint was adopted by the ASEAN Leaders at the 14th ASEAN Summit on 1 March 2009 in Cha-am/Hua Hin, Thailand. Ref. http://www.asean.org/communities/asean-socio-cultural-community
“ปาเจราจริยา โหนฺติ คุณุตฺตรานุสาสกา ปฺญญาวุฑฺฒิกเรเตเต ทินฺโนวาเท นมามิหํ”
“I bow my head in reverence of another great value, which is that of the guru and aacariya or the teachers who impart valuable lessons of right and wrong to their pupils with great kindness, who expound and impart their knowledge to the pupils, helping them comprehend the lessons by means of explanation and delineation. Always in the mind of a teacher is the constant and unshakable wish for the students’ happiness and freedom from harm. A teacher is one who strives to cultivate the minds of his or her students, to help them overcome the dark veil of ignorance and doubtfulness and illuminate their minds. The virtue of the teacher is revered as one of the most exalted virtues in the Three Realms (heaven, earth, and underworld). We should, therefore, bear in mind the great value of a teacher with respect and reverence at all time.”
บทสวดเคารพคุณ ครูอาจารย์ (Song in Praise of Guru and Aacariya)
Paraphrased from “Kunanukun Tri Pak (คุณานุคุณไตรภาค)“
Published for the occasion of Her Royal Highness Princess Petcharajrajsuda Sirisobhapanwadi 84th Birthday Anniversary in 2009,
by the Office of National Education Council. The publication is available from CGI Learning Center.